Science, Scripture, & Salvation

Detailed information on air temperature and CO2 levels is trapped in these specimens. Current polar records show an intimate connection between atmospheric carbon dioxide and temperature in the natural world. In essence, when one goes up, the other one follows. There is, however, still a degree of uncertainty about which came first—a spike in temperature or CO2. The data, covering the end of the last ice age, between 20, and 10, years ago, show that CO2 levels could have lagged behind rising global temperatures by as much as 1, years. His team compiled an extensive record of Antarctic temperatures and CO2 data from existing data and five ice cores drilled in the Antarctic interior over the last 30 years. Their results, published February 28 in Science , show CO2 lagged temperature by less than years, drastically decreasing the amount of uncertainty in previous estimates.

Paleo-atmospheres: The Ice-Core Record

A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection. A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it.

Ice Cores and the Age of the Earth: Part 1 Published October 1, June 13, by Cheri Fields Photograph of a section of the GISP2 ice core from m depth with clearly visible “annual layers”.

Alternating patterns of distinct laminae are commonly identified within glacial lake deposits and are generally interpreted in the following way: However, there is actually no empirical evidence to back the claim that varves form as annual deposits over extended periods of time. It appears then, that claiming a varve is an annual event is an assumption in itself; one steeped in uniformitarian thought, but not reality. Geologists have known for quite some time that multiple laminae may form very rapidly.

French creation scientist Guy Berthault performed groundbreaking laboratory experiments demonstrating that multiple laminations can form spontaneously when sediment mixtures consisting of particles of different sizes are deposited in air, running water, or still water. This occurs because particles of different sizes have a tendency to spontaneously segregate and stratify themselves. Even uniformitarian geologists have acknowledged that stratification can occur quickly.

Almost ten years later, the results of similar experiments were published in Nature Makse et al. Furthermore, these experimental results have been confirmed by field observations. Geologic activity at Mount St. Helens subsequent to the well-known May 18, , eruption resulted in the formation of a cm 25 feet thick deposit consisting of many thin, alternating fine-grained and coarse-grained laminae very similar to varves.

Radiometric Dating is Accurate

In this chapter, Oard tries to explain away this data. First, for an explanation of the processes used to examine ice cores, free of any young earth creation science hype, you may wish to read Ice Core Dating http: This is true…however, it is not the problem Oard makes it out to be. First, Oard claims that the main assumption we make is that the earth is billions of years old.

Oard approaches this from the other direction, assuming the earth is only 6, , years old.

C14 dating has been calibrated against more than 10, years of tree ring data and more than that of ice core data and it now even adjusts for variations in solar activity over the .

One place were varves have been studied for decades is below a deep lake in Japan: Though a well-worn example, this recent work pushing the varve chronology to close to 60, year bears reviewing in light of how YECs have responded in the past to this challenging data. An aerial map of Lake Suigetsu in Japan showing that it is part of a series of lakes. These formed as the result of large volcanic explosions. This image is a web site that documents the research on the varves from this location: Lake Suigetsu fits those requirements exceptionally well.

For example, the Hasu River enters Lake Mikata where the sediments suspended in the river, even during a large flood, will fall out of the water column. The sediment-depleted water then flows through a narrow but shallow channel into Lake Suigetsu which is surrounded by high cliffs on all sides and has almost no input of water from the surrounding area. The result is that the waters of Lake Suigetsu have little suspended sediment and the surrounding walls limit the wind on its surface so the waters are not disrupted.

This provides researchers with increased confidence that the varves represent annual years and that the climatic influences on this lake in the past have been very similar to those of the present. How do varves form in this lake?

Antarctic Ice Cores and Environmental Change

An ice age implies extreme snowfall which, in turn, requires cold temperatures and heavy precipitation. Heavy precipitation can occur only if oceans are warm enough to produce heavy evaporation. How could warm oceans exist with cold atmospheric temperatures? Another problem is stopping an ice age once it begins—or beginning a new ice age after one ends.

Eventually, the entire globe should freeze permanently.

Scientists say they have developed a means of accurately dating Earth’s oldest and densest polar ice by analyzing the composition of krypton gas trapped within ancient air bubbles.

Scientists say they have developed a means of accurately dating Earth’s oldest and densest polar ice by analyzing the composition of krypton gas trapped within ancient air bubbles. Advertisement “The oldest ice found in drilled cores is around , years old, and with this new technique we think we can look in other regions and successfully date polar ice back as far as 1. Potential uses, Buizert and his colleagues say, are dating meteorites recovered in Antarctic ice, and studying the Earth’s climate and its cycle of ice ages.

Krypton is a noble gas that is present in the atmosphere at extremely low levels, or about one part per million. In the upper atmosphere, exposure to cosmic rays can transform a stable krypton isotope into a slow-decaying radioactive isotope. Using krypton to gauge the age of ancient ice Scientists say that air bubbles in polar ice will contain some of these radioisotopes.

By comparing the radioisotope’s state of decay to stable krypton isotopes, researchers can determine how long the gas has been trapped in the ice. That’s essentially how scientists use carbon techniques to date ice, but that method is only accurate back to about 50, years. But even though krypton can be used to date much older ice, its trickier to work with.

Because there’s so little krypton in the air, you have to melt down a lot of ice to obtain sufficient samples. Also, you need a device that can count, or trap, individual atoms.

Accuracy in Genesis

Particularly in the polar region, but also at high elevations elsewhere, snow falls on an annual cycle and remains permanently. Over time, a few decades, the layers of snow compact under their own weight and become ice. By drilling through that ice, and recovering cylinders of it, it is possible to reconstruct records of temperature and of atmospheric gases for periods of hundreds of thousands of years. Technologically the recovery of ice cores and their analysis is an amazing feat.

Secondly, to analyse the content of the air bubbles, and determine not only the proportion of different gases but also the proportion of specific isotopes of those gases is also technologically challenging.

Accuracy in Genesis. The Curse, of the ground was a severe climate, as shown by the Greenland ice cores. h) Farming, the first Biblical “man”, Adam, Chronology, the genealogies of the creation story were not intended for dating the age of the earth as many teachers of creationism declare. n).

Hide Scientists take samples from the center of the coral. Paleoclimatology is the study of past climates. Since it is not possible to go back in time to see what climates were like, scientists use imprints created during past climate, known as proxies, to interpret paleoclimate. Organisms, such as diatoms, forams, and coral serve as useful climate proxies.

Other proxies include ice cores, tree rings, and sediment cores which include diatoms, foraminifera, microbiota, pollen, and charcoal within the sediment and the sediment itself. Past climate can be reconstructed using a combination of different types of proxy records. These records can then be integrated with observations of Earth’s modern climate and placed into a computer model to infer past as well as predict future climate.

Hide Foraminifera, such as this Globigerinoides species, can be used as a climate proxy copyright O. Anderson, accessed from the Micro Scope website http: Foraminifera, also known as forams, and diatoms are commonly used climate proxies. Forams and diatoms are shelled organisms found in aquatic and marine environments. There are both planktonic, or floating in the water column, and benthic, or bottom dwelling, forms. Foram shells are made up of calcium carbonate CaCO3 while diatom shells are composed of silicon dioxide SiO2.

Watch The Creationism Vs. Evolution Debate: Ken Ham And Bill Nye

View images by clicking on link or reduced image: Each image opens into a new window. These primitive, medium sized apes lived in rain forests between 18 and 22 million years ago. This species and others such as Dryopithecus existed before the hominid line diverged on the path to humans. This lineage ancestral gibbons is believed to have diverged from the great ape and human lineages between 17 and 25 Mya Avers, Oreopithecus ‘s hand closely matches the pattern of early hominids, with a grasping capability including firm pad-to-pad precision gripping that apes are unable to perform presumably as a response to similar functional demands to hominids Moya-Sola et al,

Ice core dating using stable isotope data Ice consists of water molecules made of atoms that come in versions with slightly different mass, so-called isotopes. Variations in the abundance of the heavy isotopes relative to the most common isotopes can be measured and are found to reflect the temperature variations through the year.

However most articles do not make a distinction between these so called annual layers and the visible layers. While these methods work well for relatively recent ice as one goes back in time they become less certain. Ice flow also blurs any indication of years so that ages for deeper ice are derived from models of variations in accumulation rate and ice flow. This makes ice core dating very dependent on the theoretical models used; as such, none of these methods are independent indicators of age nor are they calibrated to climatic models.

Carbon 14C is also used to assign dates to ice cores but it has itself been partially calibrated to ice cores and therefore it is not an independent method. All ice core “dates” are derived by calibrating the various methods to the Uniformitarian theoretical system. When calibrated to the Creation theoretical system the dates derived agree with time of the Biblical flood. The plant matter, buried 10, feet deep, was “the first organic material ever recovered from a deep ice-core drilling project” according to Prof.

Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, a professor at the Niels Bohr Institute and the leader of the project, said the plant matter suggested that the Greenland Ice Sheet “formed very fast. However, geologists using ice cores and dust trapped in the ice date the warm period some , years ago. Willerslev et al An interesting quote from Willerslev:

Biblical Dating #4 Ice Core Dating